SP4N-LAPOR! Indonesia’s national complaint handling management system
Indonesia has a wide and complex structure of government which provides different and interconnected types of public services. In this context, public participation in reporting complaints and dissatisfaction with public services delivery nationwide plays a significant role to ensure better quality of public service delivery.
SP4N-LAPOR! has been established to become a one-stop national complaint handling management system in public services.
Complaints and dissatisfaction with public services delivery must be accommodated efficiently. A nationwide complaint handling system is needed to engage citizens and seek their input to improve transparency and government accountability. By doing so, the Government of Indonesia will ensure that citizens can exercise their right to effective and efficient public services nationwide.
In 2012, according to Presidential Regulation (Perpres) No 76/2013 on Public Service Management System, the Government of Indonesia (led by the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, or KemenPAN-RB) established Sistem Pengelolaan Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik Nasional (SP4N)-Layanan Aspirasi dan Pengaduan Online Rakyat (LAPOR!) as an integrated public complaint management system. SP4N-LAPOR! is designated to become a nationally integrated, one-stop system for managing public complaints. The system offers a “no wrong door” platform for the public to submit complaints. SP4N-LAPOR! is also aimed at increasing government accountability and responsiveness for the implementation of public services, as well as to increase public participation in reporting complaints and dissatisfaction with public services delivery, at both the national and local levels. Through SP4N-LAPOR! the respective governments can:
• Manage public complaints quickly, precisely, thoroughly, and in a coordinated manner;
• Give access to public participation in submitting complaints;
• Encourage the implementation of improvements to the quality of public services.
The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has already made significant progress in implementing SP4N-LAPOR! This national complaint handling system is accessible in many platforms nationwide. The public can access it through the LAPOR! website (www.lapor.go.id), Android and iOS mobile applications, SMS 1708, and twitter @lapor1708. The Tracking ID feature helps users to trace their submitted complaints. Users can check the process through the website page or mobile apps to review the follow-up process.This system is equipped with an anonymity feature that protects the identity of its users. Thus, whistleblower reports are kept confidential.
These improvements have been followed by more local government agencies connecting to SP4N-LAPOR! As mandated in the Ministry of Home Affairs, SP4N-LAPOR! aims to be a National Complaint Handling System (NHCS). The letter encourages local government agencies in Indonesia to use it and integrate their existing complaint handling systems to SP4N-LAPOR!
Through SP4N-LAPOR!, the system is intended to provide e-government services that support government activities in the fields of planning, budgeting, procurement of government goods and services, performance accountability, monitoring and evaluation, filing, staffing, and public service complaints handling.
As of November 2019, SP4N-LAPOR! has received 1,543,465 reports from the public. Of those reports, 66.69 percent were categorized as complaints, 28.73 percent were requests for information, 3.57 percent were suggestions, 0.07 percent were whistle blowing and 0.07 percent were suggestions about priority programs. On average, it takes three to five days to respond to a complaint and around ten days to solve it.
Having SP4N-LAPOR! as the national complaint handling management system is beneficial for the Government of Indonesia in planning policy changes and practices nationwide. The public inputs received through LAPOR also utilized by some of government agencies as additional and complementary information for the creation of development program as well as determining priorities (evidence based).
What Makes Your Project Innovative?
Indonesia requires a strong and integrated control system for the management of public complaints toward its services as it faces demographic and cultural integration challenges.
SP4N-LAPOR! is a national complaint handling system that has been connected to various government institutions in Indonesia. The system is targeted to fulfil the no wrong door policy for public complaints nationwide. As the system is integrated with many government institutions, it can follow up the complains from the public to the respective agencies. Having done so, the complaints can be managed properly with a response that is fast, effective, and efficient.
SP4N-LAPOR! has a specific business process that allows the system to be monitored and controlled either in the central government or per region. This process allows SP4N-LAPOR! to integrate the complaints and follow up immediately to the respective government institution.
What is the current status of your innovation?
SP4N-LAPOR! has been utilised for seven years since it was first built in 2012. Up to 2019, LAPOR! has recorded at least 1,543,465 public complaints through different platforms. Through the Presidential Regulation (No. 95/2018 on Electronic-Based Government Systems (SPBE)), LAPOR! has grown to be a general application for complaint handling management. LAPOR! has become a national complaint handling system that must be used by all government agencies by following its business process, data structure, security system and technology standards. Having this circumstance, some regions in Indonesia have implemented SP4N-LAPOR! and promote it to the local government as well as communities.
Collaborations & Partnerships
The implementation of SP4N-LAPOR! involved many stakeholders. The Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform (KemenPAN-RB) as lead ministry worked collaboratively with two other institutions, namely the President's Office and the Ombudsman. Some international development agencies also provided significant supports (such as USAID CEGAH, UNDP KOICA, and GIZ), alongside local CSOs and the public.
Users, Stakeholders & Beneficiaries
1. Communities. Can easily deliver their complaints to the government from anywhere and anytime, without having to determine which agency they should refer to
2. Civil Society Organisations benefits with the public complaint data which helps them to do analysis and develop recommendations for public service improvement
3. LAPOR! helps Government Agencies to get feedbacks on their services, providing them with quick responses, and improving the quality of public services.
Results, Outcomes & Impacts
Many improvements in public services have been done based on the LAPOR! reports. The data from LAPOR! complaints also have created some local policies. SP4N-LAPOR! has 801,257 users and has received 1,543,465 complaints from the public.
In April-May 2019, a community satisfaction survey was conducted by the Polling Center to 1085 users under USAID CEGAH support. The survey found that 90% of users find SP4N-LAPOR! to be a good reporting channel. The survey was conducted based on the aspects of ACCESS, RESPONSE, and TRANSPARENCY. 72% of users have a positive perception of SP4N-LAPOR! (17% are very satisfied; 55% are satisfied). The greatest appreciation was for ease of access (a total of 86% of users expressed satisfaction, consisting of 21% very satisfied, 65% satisfied).
A LAPOR! competition among government agencies conducted in 2018 and 2019 also showed that the level of enthusiasm within agencies in implementation of SP4N-LAPOR! is increasing (now at 34%).
Challenges and Failures
The challenges of implementing SP4N-LAPOR! in Indonesia are divided in terms of management and use of the application. From the management side, commitment to manage and follow up complaints properly must always be improved and monitored by KemenPAN-RB and other partners so that the management process runs well. To minimise the risk of this challenge, KemenPAN-RB carries out technical guidance activities, knowledge sharing forums, and national public service complaint management competitions.
From the user side, SP4N-LAPOR! faces some challenges to increase user awareness and education about correctly submitting complaints. At present, several complaints cannot be followed up because the report does not include supporting evidence and does not explain the chronology of the incident, so that the complaint cannot be followed up by the respective agencies. In order to promote LAPOR!, the KemenPAN-RB is collaborating with many parties to conduct offline and online dissemination.
Conditions for Success
The success of SP4N-LAPOR! as a national complaint handling system requires that the system is connected to all government agencies. Agency connection is influenced by the following factors:
1. At present, many agency human resources departments are not equipped to permanently handle LAPOR! A special functional position is being arranged which will allow the management of LAPOR! to be more focused.
2. There is a system that strictly regulates sanctions for managers who do not follow up complaints, and reward agencies that do well in managing the complaint handling system.
3. The number of complaints received by the SP4N-LAPOR! continues to increase every month. From January to November 2019, the average number of monthly reports increased by about 250 per month. A larger server is needed,
4. To encourage commitment from the SP4N-LAPOR! Management Agency, SP4N-LAPOR! provides executive dashboards to facilitate the monitoring and evaluation process.
Based on the mandate of Presidential Regulation Number 95/2019, all government agencies in Indonesia at the ministry, institution, and regional government levels must be integrated and connected to SP4N-LAPOR! as a general application to manage public service complaints. If a government agency has its own complaint management application, the application must be adjusted to conform to LAPOR!’s standard business process, data standards, technology standards, and application security standards. After the integration of these standard procedures, other government agency complaint applications must be connected in two directions, i.e. both applications can be used to accept complaints, and follow up actions are entered in both applications.
Managing internet-based applications that can be accessed by many parties requires ongoing maintenance and development processes. While the LAPOR! application is known and used by many people in Indonesia, additional server capacity and the need to increase data security are essential to protect complaints and reporter data. Innovations to change the application both in terms of interface and ease of use must always be updated to adjust to the requirements of the users. The development of application technology is very dynamic, therefore skilled human resources are needed with development capabilities so that the LAPOR! can continue to be used by the people of Indonesia.
Apart from a good research and development process in the application, managing public complaints requires good cooperation between government agencies. The collaborative development process can be carried out by forming a MoU between institutions, accompanied by lobbying capabilities and negotiations between the leaders of the institutions.
To accelerate the achievement of national development targets, the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) has set six focus areas as a form of innovative approach that will be a catalyst for equitable and adaptive national development. The percentage of complaints managed through SP4N-LAPOR! is one of the indicators in the second topic, namely good governance.
This is evidence of the commitment of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in establishing a quality complaint management system in order to realise the ideals of excellent service.